[141] In 2013, Oakland was designated as one of America's top twelve art communities, recognizing Downtown (including Uptown), Chinatown, Old Oakland, and Jack London Square as communities "that have most successfully combined art, artists and venues for creativity and expression with independent businesses, retail shops and restaurants, and a walkable lifestyle to make vibrant neighborhoods."[142]. Racial Makeup of Oakland excluding Hispanics from racial categories (2018)[92], According to 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, Oakland's population rose to 429,114, and was 35.1% White (29.0% Non-Hispanic White and 6.1% Hispanic White), 23.2% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American and Alaskan Native, 15.3% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 17.8% Some Other Race, and 7.0% from two or more races. If you're not familiar with the history of protest in the U.S., you might not know that the armed occupation of government buildings hasn't always been just for white guys. [113], Historically low-income neighborhoods have been rapidly changed by new, higher-income residents as high-wage tech workers and expensive housing have continued to push lower-wage residents out of Oakland. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.5%. White migrants from the Jim Crow South carried their racial attitudes, causing tensions to rise among black and white workers competing for the better-paying jobs in the Bay Area. The racial makeup of Oakland was 134,925 (34.5%) White (non-Hispanic White 25.9%), 129,471 (28.0%) African American, 3,040 (0.8%) Native American, 65,811 (16.8%) Asian (8.7% Chinese, 2.2% Vietnamese, 1.6% Filipino, 0.7% Cambodian, 0.7% Laotian, 0.6% Korean, 0.5% Japanese, 0.5% Indian, 0.1% Mongolian), 2,222 (0.6%) Pacific Islander (0.3% Tongan), 53,378 (13.7%) from other races, and 21,877 (5.6%) from two or more races. 1 in climate among U.S. It's definitely not L.A. or New York. According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Oakland has 245,111 registered voters. Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG & E) provides natural gas and electricity service. The Warriors announced in April 2014 that they would leave Oakland once their new arena was built across the Bay in San Francisco. The old freeway segment had passed through the middle of West Oakland, forming a barrier between West Oakland neighborhoods. The lands became Carpentier's when Peralta refused to repay the loan he believed was fraudulently incurred. The population density was 5,009.2 inhabitants per square mile (1,934.1/km2). [94] Oakland ranked among the top cities with residents with bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees per square mile. 18.1% of the population were of Mexican descent, 1.9% Salvadoran, 1.3% Guatemalan, and 0.7% Puerto Rican. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. [96] In 2012, the median income for a household in the city was US$51,863 and the median income for a family was US$59,459. The Oakland Induction Center was the site of many more protests and arrests into the early 1970s, but the riots of October 1967 remained the bloodiest confrontation. Oakland was served by the Oakland Tribune, which published its first newspaper on February 21, 1874. Member schools include primary user California State University, East Bay as well as Lincoln University, New College of California, Saint Mary's College of California, SFSU Multimedia Studies Program, UC Berkeley Extension, University of Phoenix and Peralta Community College District.[192][193]. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland.[33]. A concurrent rise in rape, robbery, burglary, auto-theft and other crimes occurred as well. The eastern span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also sustained damage and was closed to traffic for one month. [98], In 2007 approximately 15.3 percent of families and 17.0 percent of the general population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of those under age 18 and 13.1 percent of those age 65 or over. [165], A 2014 study by the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law & Social Policy at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law examined crime in the city from 1987 to 2012 and concluded that "The story of crime in Oakland over the last 25 years is a nuanced one, as there are both positive and negative aspects of the crime trends. [204] According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2011 American Community Survey, Oakland came in 7th place out of the 100 largest cities in the nation by percentage of people that chose to commute by bike in 2011. [58][59], Students Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party at Merritt College (then located at a former high school on Grove Street, now occupied by Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute), which emphasized black power, advocated armed self-defense against police brutality, and was involved in several incidents that ended in the deaths of police officers and other Black Panther members. Oakland expanded during the 1920s, as its population expanded with factory workers. The donation includes providing new instruments, that will benefit over 2000 Oakland students.[190]. Bentley School is an Independent Co-educational K–12, college preparatory school on two campuses in Oakland and Lafayette, California. [137] In 2013, Oakland topped the No. [191] The Oakland Higher Education Consortium and the City of Oakland's Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA) opened the Oakland Higher Education Center downtown in 2002 to provide "access to multiple higher education service providers within a shared urban facility." The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone (a Miwok word meaning "western people"). 1917 promotional photograph of a day's output at the Chevrolet factory", "Highway Nostalgia. There were 83,718 families (54.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.27. [83] Originally a marsh-lined wildlife haven, Lake Merritt was dredged and bordered with parks from the 1890s to the 1910s. Jean Quan was elected mayor in November 2010, beating Don Perata and Rebecca Kaplan in the city's first ranked choice balloting. Drug dealing in general, and the dealing of crack cocaine in particular, resulted in elevated rates of violent crime, causing Oakland to consistently be listed as one of America's most crime-ridden cities. Northern Light School is a private nonprofit elementary and middle school. Two years later, on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland. By ethnicity, 26.5% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 73.5% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). The city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. [34] Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever. Oakland currently has professional teams in three sports: baseball, soccer, indoor football. During the 1960s, the city was home to an innovative funk music scene that produced well-known bands like Sly and the F… Many worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad, at its major rail yard in West Oakland. The United States Census Bureau says the city's total area is 78.0 square miles (202 km2), including 55.8 square miles (145 km2) of land and 22.2 square miles (57 km2) (28.48 percent) of water. Alameda County Medical Center is operated by the county and provides medical services to county residents, including the medically indigent who do not have health insurance. [110], An analysis by the Urban Institute of U.S. Census 2000 numbers showed Oakland had the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians among the 50 largest U.S. cities, behind San Francisco and Seattle. With a population of 433,031 as of 2019[update],[19] it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area; its Port of Oakland is the busiest port in the San Francisco Bay, the entirety of Northern California, and the fifth busiest in the United States of America. It produced Chevrolet cars and then GMC trucks until 1963, when it was moved to Fremont in southern Alameda County. Oakland's highest point is near Grizzly Peak Blvd, east of Berkeley, just over 1,760 feet (540 m) above sea level at about 37°52′43″N 122°13′27″W / 37.8786°N 122.2241°W / 37.8786; -122.2241. 'Chrysler plant, "East Oakland Community Information Book 2001", "U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. [49], During World War II, the East Bay Area was home to many war-related industries. In 1960, Kaiser Corporation erected its headquarters at the former site of Holy Names University, at the corner of 20th and Harrison Streets. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun natives, who lived there for thousands of years. In addition, the Park Street, Fruitvale, and High Street bridges connect Alameda to East Oakland over the Oakland Estuary. [99] Home ownership is 41%[99] and 14% of rental units are subsidized.[99]. [75] Two months later they were evicted from the house by three dozen sheriff's deputies, as hundreds of supporters demonstrated in favor of the women. [51] Also migrating to the area during this time were many Mexican Americans from southwestern states such as New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado. • Student riots in Mexico City subdued by Mexican security forces. [145], Recent years have seen the growth of the Oakland Art Murmur event, occurring in the Uptown neighborhood the first Friday evening of every month. [115], Big tech companies have continued to transform the communities and culture of Oakland as modern apartments have appeared, housing prices have spiked, and many prior working-class residents have moved to suburbs further inland. Other Oakland public high schools include Castlemont High School, Fremont High School, and McClymonds High School, briefly known as Castlemont Community of Small Schools, Fremont Federation of High Schools, and McClymonds Educational Complex, respectively. Oaklanders refer to their city's terrain as "the flatlands" and "the hills". The National Weather Service today has two official weather stations in Oakland: Oakland International Airport and the Oakland Museum (established 1970). As of the census[100] of 2000, 19.4% of the population and 16.2% of families were below the poverty line. cities. [175] During the first decade of the 21st century, Oakland has consistently been listed as one of the most dangerous large cities in the United States. [37] Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland. As a result of Loma Prieta, a significant seismic retrofit was performed on the western span of the Bay Bridge. The Raiders left Oakland for Los Angeles in 1982, where they won a third Super Bowl championship and returned to Oakland in 1995. At the time, the GOP was more moderate than it has become in the 21st century, and some members belonged to a progressive tradition across the Northern Tier of states. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,068 persons (25.4%). Oakland is in the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay. Until recent waves of gentrification, these terms also symbolized Oakland's deep economic divide, with "the hills" being more affluent communities. [101][102] A 2019 analysis by WalletHub showed that Oakland was the most ethnoracially diverse city in the United States. [211] It is headquartered at One Kaiser Plaza in Downtown Oakland and maintains a large medical center in the Piedmont Avenue neighborhood. Thousands of protestors took to the streets, with many arrests, including singer and peace activist Joan Baez! Tensions between the black community and the largely white police force were high, as expectations during the civil rights era increased to gain social justice and equality before the law. The late 1960s and early ’70s were a period of intense innovation in poster design, from psychedelic music posters to political protest posters. [187] Some individual schools have much better performance than the citywide average. [117] The number was higher for individual low-income communities, with 96% of Native American households in neighborhoods that either experienced gentrification or were at risk of being gentrified, followed by Latino households at 94%, Black households at 92%, and Asian or Pacific Islander households at 88%. Civil Rights protest at the Oakland Tribune - 1964 By the early '60s Oakland was one of the most diverse cities in America, following a mass influx of Black American men from the South in … ... David Armor saw this split coming all the way back in 1960… The mayor is elected at-large for a four-year term. [117], Oakland is a major West Coast port, and the fifth busiest in the United States by cargo volume. [36], The State Board of Health along with Oakland also advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. [181][182][183][184], The Oakland Unified School District (OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield Village, operates most of Oakland's public schools. Since the team remained in the Bay Area, they decided not to revert to the San Francisco Warriors name it had in its first stint with the city. Amtrak's California Zephyr has its western terminus at the nearby Emeryville station. 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