In addition to the main greenhouse gases listed above, other greenhouse gases include sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons (see IPCC list of greenhouse gases). Cumulative anthropogenic (i.e., human-emitted) emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel use are a major cause of global warming,[140] and give some indication of which countries have contributed most to human-induced climate change. This bar graph shows global greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2005, measured in 100-year estimated, Carbon intensity of GDP (using PPP) for different regions, 1982–2011, Map of cumulative per capita anthropogenic atmospheric, Contribution of clouds to Earth's greenhouse effect, Proportion of direct effects at a given moment, Radiative forcing and annual greenhouse gas index, Regional and national attribution of emissions, Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources. Focused analysis includes more formal assessment procedures such as set tests and set tasks. On the other hand, in addition to its direct radiative impact, methane has a large, indirect radiative effect because it contributes to ozone formation. It also helps to connect with the child in a meaningful way and build stronger relationships in the classroom. A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. This does not refer to an artistic endeavor but, rather, refers to the possible need, for example, to draw a map of the observation setting or illustrating objects in relation to people's behavior. Here are some questions to ask yourself when analyzing your observations: NOTE:  Only base your interpretations on what you have actually observed. Banuri et al. [172] The IPCC has pointed out that many long-term climate scenario models require large-scale man-made negative emissions to avoid serious climate change.[173]. The disadvantage of this approach is that you get a dimensionless score for an entire recording session, so you only get one one data point for each recording session. Rather than simply dropping in quotations and expecting their significance and relevance to your argument to be self-evident, you need to provide sufficient analysis of the passage. 2nd ed. Note that field reports generally do not include further readings or an extended bibliography. See drop-down tab for additional information about note-taking. Preschoolers Observation The observation took place at a local playground in a nearby park, because I felt that this would be the most comfortable, and therefore the most conducive environment for gathering the information I needed unobtrusively. Be sure to describe any unanticipated problems you encountered and note the limitations of your study. Land-use change, such as deforestation, caused about 31% of cumulative emissions over 1870–2017, coal 32%, oil 25%, and gas 10%. observation, questionnaires with . YET ANOTHER NOTE:  An issue rarely discussed in the literature about conducting field research is whether you should move around the study site while observing or remaining situated in one place. 12% of total emissions arise from agriculture, 7% from land use change and forestry, 6% from industrial processes, and 3% from waste. Observation Observer:Valmire Korqaj Date:03.12.2 Class:VII Teacher:Miranda Agaj -In this paper I will describe a teacher and her students in an observation I did in Public school “Deshmoret e Kombit”.Through this paper a variety of pupils' class and teacher's behavior will be discussed. In any case, the calculation of the total radiative effect includes both direct and indirect forcing. [22] Water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, but human activity does not directly affect water vapor concentrations except at local scales, such as near irrigated fields. [7] This increase has occurred despite the uptake of more than half of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle. [79][80], Recent data also shows that the concentration is increasing at a higher rate. and deposition of X Tourism accounts for about 50% of traffic movements. [125], Approximately 3.5% of the overall human impact on climate are from the aviation sector. Conversely, if a molecule has a longer atmospheric lifetime than CO2 its GWP will increase when the timescale is considered. Data Collection. If information is placed in more than one appendix ["appendices"], the order in which they are organized is dictated by the order they were first mentioned in the text of the report. [89] Natural sources of carbon dioxide are more than 20 times greater than sources due to human activity,[90] but over periods longer than a few years natural sources are closely balanced by natural sinks, mainly photosynthesis of carbon compounds by plants and marine plankton. [122] Due to the lightness of plastic versus glass or metal, plastic may reduce energy consumption. What are the implications of this? (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001), 352-368; Emerson, Robert M. et al. One-Zero Sampling -- this is very similar to instantaneous sampling, only the observer records if the behaviors of interest have occurred at any time during an interval instead of at the instant of the sampling point. Click Go. How do your observations fit into the larger context of professional practice? For example, methane and carbon monoxide (CO) are oxidized to give carbon dioxide (and methane oxidation also produces water vapor). Remember that your over-riding goal […] (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001), 352-368; Emerson, Robert M. et al. [123] The report says that only solutions which involve a reduction in consumption can solve the problem, while others like biodegradable plastic, ocean cleanup, using renewable energy in plastic industry can do little, and in some cases may even worsen it. Participant observation is a method of collecting qualitative data in social research. [27], When ranked by their direct contribution to the greenhouse effect, the most important are:[21][failed verification]. Shindell et al. This does not refer to an artistic endeavor but, rather, refers to the possible need, for example, to draw a map of the observation setting or illustrating objects in relation to people's behavior. [8][9], The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, petroleum (including oil) and natural gas, with additional contributions coming from deforestation and other changes in land use. Carl Gustav Jung (/ j ʊ ŋ / YUUNG; born Karl Gustav Jung, German: [kaʁl ˈjʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.Jung's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy and religious studies.Jung worked as a research scientist at the famous … Eventually other earth processes[which?] This and other basic principles indicate that warming associated with increased concentrations of the other greenhouse gases also will increase the concentration of water vapor (assuming that the relative humidity remains approximately constant; modeling and observational studies find that this is indeed so). + For example, as this paper explains, observation may be employed in association with focused analysis, especially where what is observed is student performance on a set task. a physical change (condensation and precipitation remove water vapor from the atmosphere). [124], The pharmaceutical industry emitted 52 megatonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in 2015. This is the most common and easiest method of recording your observations. In the example given above, it’s easy to analyze the event as revealed by the events’ chain of events. Methane has an atmospheric lifetime of 12 ± 3 years. However, with this method, you likely have to conduct a lot of focal samples before you have a good idea about how group members interact. {\displaystyle \tau } Davis and Caldeira (2010)[153]:4 found that a substantial proportion of CO2 emissions are traded internationally. Both CO2 and CH4 vary between glacial and interglacial phases, and concentrations of these gases correlate strongly with temperature. Always assess your presence in the setting where you're gathering the data so as to minimize your impact on the subject or phenomenon being studied. Why did the people you observed proceed with an action in the way that they did? The advantage of this method is that you are often able to observe relatively rare or unusual behaviors that might be missed by more deliberately designed sampling methods. [19], Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming CO2. 115-130; Pyrczak, Fred and Randall R. Bruce. Usually you have a set of predetermined categories or types of behaviors that you are interested in observing [e.g., when a teacher walks around the classroom] and you keep track of the duration of those behaviors. Alderks, Peter. Naturalistic Observation This paper is going to describe the behavioral and cognitive traits that can be inferred from that behavior of a two year old child that I observed in the park as she was playing with her mother. However, consult with your professor concerning what your list of sources should be included and be sure to write them in the preferred citation style of your discipline or is preferred by your professor [i.e., APA, Chicago, MLA, etc.]. [98] In comparison, methane has not increased appreciably, and N2O by 0.25% y−1. Photography This approach doesn't tend to bias one behavior over another and provides significant detail about a individual's behavior. [112] Although much less polluting than coal plants, natural gas-fired power plants are also major emitters. You may expand on the sample questions. [41], A number of natural and man-made mechanisms can affect the global energy balance and force changes in Earth's climate. of an atmospheric species X in a one-box model as the average time that a molecule of X remains in the box. This can also take the form of rough tables, charts, or graphs documenting the frequency and type of activities observed. Why do you think what you observed happened? Greenhouse gases are one such mechanism. The annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the atmospheric increase in a given year to that year's total emissions. For example, methane is. What evidence do you have for your reasoning? m Video or audio recording your observations has the positive effect of giving you an unfiltered record of the observation event. [41] As explained above, some greenhouse gases remain in the atmosphere for decades or even centuries, and therefore can affect Earth's energy balance over a long period. Emissions changes may, for example, be measured against a base year of 1990. Direct data does not exist for periods earlier than those represented in the ice core record, a record that indicates CO2 mole fractions stayed within a range of 180 ppm to 280 ppm throughout the last 800,000 years, until the increase of the last 250 years. Before taking the class, I was not sure The four main methods are the emission factor-based method, mass balance method, predictive emissions monitoring systems, and continuous emissions monitoring systems. Classroom Observation Analysis Paper . Also, you should reject the idea that photographs represent some sort of "window into the world" because this assumption creates the risk of over-interpreting what they show. 94). Professors will assign a field report with the intention of improving your understanding of key theoretical concepts by applying methods of careful and structured observation of, and reflection about, people, places, or phenomena existing in their natural settings. [111] Coal-fired power stations are the single largest emitter, with over 10 Gt CO2 in 2018. Listed below are the following that relates to the teacher’s classroom design. The estimate of total CO2 emissions includes biotic carbon emissions, mainly from deforestation. Note that ozone depletion has only a minor role in greenhouse warming, though the two processes often are confused in the media. The use of audio or video recording is most useful with this type of sampling. [84], Since about 1750 human activity has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These two principles result in different totals when measuring, for example, electricity importation from one country to another, or emissions at an international airport. observation 539 Words | 3 Pages. [70] Between 1970 and 2004, global growth in annual CO2 emissions was driven by North America, Asia, and the Middle East. 2nd ed. Field reports are most often assigned in disciplines of the applied social sciences [e.g., social work, anthropology, gerontology, criminal justice, education, law, the health care professions] where it is important to build a bridge of relevancy between the theoretical concepts learned in the classroom and the practice of actually doing the work you are being taught to do. The use of audio or video recording is useful with this type of sampling. (2007)[164] concluded that unless energy policies changed substantially, the world would continue to depend on fossil fuels until 2025–2030. Observation Analysis ...Observation Analysis Andrew Sanders University of Phoenix MTE/506 – Child and Adolescent Development Cynthia Lowe March 17, 2014 Word count: 2,925 Observation Analysis Teacher observation has been received as a reasonable source of information for recording and reporting student demonstrations of learning outcomes in childhood education. [136], Land-use change, e.g., the clearing of forests for agricultural use, can affect the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by altering how much carbon flows out of the atmosphere into carbon sinks. We are all observers of people, their interactions, places, and events; however, your responsibility when writing a field report is to conduct research based on data generated by the act of designing a specific study, deliberate observation, synthesis of key findings, and interpretation of their meaning. [114], The trucking and haulage industry plays a part in production of CO2, contributing around 20% of the UK's total carbon emissions a year, with only the energy industry having a larger impact at around 39%. Do you see connections between what you observed and the findings of similar studies identified from your review of the literature? On 15 October 2016, negotiators from over 170 nations meeting at the summit of the United Nations Environment Programme reached a legally binding accord to phase out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in an amendment to the Montreal Protocol.[103][104][105]. However, these categories of assessment techniques are not necessarily distinct. Finally, hydrogen can lead to ozone production and CH4 increases as well as producing stratospheric water vapor. An example is the mixing of atmospheric gases into the oceans. As of 2001, measured atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide were 100 ppm higher than pre-industrial levels. In order to keep track of children’s intellectual development, learning activities are therefore essential. Field reports are also an opportunity to obtain evidence through methods of observing professional practice that contribute to or challenge existing theories. The conclusion should briefly recap of the entire study, reiterating the importance or significance of your observations. Observation Of A Child Observation 938 Words | 4 Pages. 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