Bacon points to the ailments of the heart that it suffers if it stops or is suffocated. Even between friends of greatly differing quantitative degrees of virtue (successful “execution” of a virtuous life), qualitative virtue (the desire for the other’s good for the other’s sake) can be shared rather equally. Summary. ♠Aristotle´s Nichomachean Ethics: "Three Types of Friendship" (Based on Utility, Pleasure and Goodness): _____ In Book VIII of "The Nichomachean Ethics", Aristotle makes reference to three kinds of friendship. According to Aristotle, there are three types of friendships: those based on utility, those based on pleasure or delight, and those grounded in virtue. In particular, you may examine your friendships with others and figure out to which kind your friendships belong. In this relationship, two parties are not in it for affection. One person's life may overflow into another's, and as such, helping another person is a way of serving oneself. Bookmark the permalink. “My best friend is the man who in wishing me well wishes it for my sake.” … Every field, from astronomy and physics to ethics and economics, has been influenced by his thinking. Friendship requires decision, which comes from a state; and a virtuous person “[wishes] good to the beloved for his own sake in accord with their state, not their feeling.” Also, the friendship of good people is one of equality. We are, and we live through, the people we spend time with. He saw friendship as one of the true joys of life, and felt that a life well-lived must include truly meaningful, lasting friendships. There’s a good reason Aristotle’s work continues to be read some 2,000 years after his death. Aristotle observed that these relationships of utility were most common among older people. Instead, he argued for the cultivation of virtuous friendships built with intention and based on a mutual appreciation of character and goodness. Summary: Presents the major issues in Aristotle's writings on Friendship. 6–7 Fannius tells Laelius that people are wondering how Laelius is dealing with the death of … Time and intimacy are the necessary conditions so that people can realize things loveable in each other. But these friendships inevitably end when either person’s tastes or preferences change. This book fully explores for the first time an idea common to Plato and Aristotle, which unites their treatments—otherwise very different—of love and friendship. Lastly, “the complete friendship is the friendship of good people similar in virtue.” And, because this kind is based on virtue, it is in accord with reason. These relationships are temporary: whenever the benefit ends, so does the relationship. Let’s dive right in for an in-depth “Of Friendship Summary and Analysis”. That is, man cannot fulfill his nature by himself alone. The first conceives of contemplation as the activity of the intellect (nous) grasping universal truths. Rather than utility or pleasure, this kind of relationship is based on a mutual appreciation of the virtues the other person holds dear. They depend on mutual growth. Rather than being short-lived, such a relationship endures over time, and there’s generally a base level of goodness required in each person for it to exist in the first place. Aristotle outlined two common kinds of friendships that are more accidental than intentional. Most friendships fall into these two accidental categories, and while Aristotle didn’t necessarily see them as bad, he did feel their lack in depth limited their quality. Think of your college friends or people who play in the same sports league. Aristotle on Friendship and Being Human; Aristotle's Anthropology. Aristotle makes the argument that friends can be regarded as second selves. And friendship is a help to the young, in saving them from error, just as it is also to the old, with a view to the care they require and their diminished capacity for action stemming from their weakness; it is a help also to those in their prime in performing noble actions, for ‘two going together’ are better able to think and to act. Of Friendship Essay Summary. However, arguments may arise when one friend expects utility and another expects pleasure. Aristotle’s final form of friendship seems to be the most preferable. He begins by discussing friends with different aims, where "proportion equalizes and preserves the friendship" like proportionate worth in goods and services keeps political friendships or economies of exchange together. But it is the source of that goodwill that differentiates perfect friendship from two imperfect forms of friendship. Happiness requires both complete virtue and complete life. A short summary of this paper. Aristotle addresses these questions on Friendship in Books 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. Finally, all three kinds of friendship require time and intimacy because to become a friend, one must appear loveable to the other in any species of love. Moreover, friends are “the greatest external good” of a happy person since he can benefit his friends in his good fortune and be benefited by the friends in ill fortune. Cicero’s Laelius de Amicitia ("Laelius on Friendship") A Summary. The bonds we forge with those close to us directly shape the quality of our lives. Friendship is clearly necessary and splendid, but people disagree on its precise nature. Aristotle outlined two common kinds of friendships that are more accidental than intentional. Aristotle on Friendship. While he saw the value in accidental friendships based on pleasure and utility, he felt that their impermanence diminished their potential. Aristotle takes up the subject of what is lovable. Aristotle asserts that a human being is a political animal by nature. Chapter. Through networks of friends, Aristotle seems to be arguing, we can begin to develop a shared idea of the good and to pursue it. Friendship is thus a necessity for the good life in Aristotle's view. A cure for ailing hearts. In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle describes friendship as reciprocated goodwill. This kind of relationship, he found, was more common among younger people. Beyond their depth and intimacy, the beauty of these relationships is in how they include the rewards of the other two types. I Shall Be with You – A Reflection on Exodus. Aristotle’s second kind of accidental friendship is based in pleasure. What’s more, friendships of virtue take time and trust to build. Although he lived long ago, the ethical writings of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE) still have relevance to the present day, particularly when we want to understand the meaning of friendship. And, he can strengthen his virtues by living with good friends. Friendship of this kind has three specific features of friendship: A loves B for B’s own sake; A loves B for what B really is; and A loves B because B has a virtuous character. https://cantory.blogspot.com/2007/12/aristotle-and-his-view-of-friendship.html Chapter; Aa; Aa; Get access. I write about philosophy, science, art, and history for a private community of smart, curious people. Arguments begin … Rather than utility or pleasure, this kind of relationship is based on a mutual appreciation of the virtues the other person holds dear. The following observations apply to the material of the later chapters. These friendships are often the most short-lived relationships of our lives. According to Aristotle, a man by nature and behaviour may be degraded to such an extent that he may be called unfit for society. This kind of friendship, says Aristotle, is only possible between “good … Aristotle also bases his political theory on friendship. And that’s fine, as long as the two parties gain enjoyment through a mutual interest in something external.  Hence, friendship is necessary for happiness. Life is too short for shallow friendships. Because he also said that “ it is not noble to hope for favors in return, because only a shameless person requires benefactors, and friendship is above all a freedom. The last of Aristotle’s three types of friendship is the ideal one. A king is a friend to his subjects because he wishes to make them good. Furthermore, depending on the objects of love, Aristotle analyzes three kinds of friendship: namely friendship of utility, friendship of pleasure, and friendship of virtue. All you want is to have a nice time together, share your lives, and be a shoulder for them to lean … If they’re a good enough person to warrant such a relationship to begin with, there’s utility there, too. This section continues Aristotle's discussion of friendship. With true friendship, friends love each other for their own sake, and they wish good things for each other. Instead, you truly appreciate the other person for who they are. Aristotle's account of perfect friendship amounts to an analysis of friendship as people conceive it, yet for him, it is only a part, if also the focus, of a wider classification of interpersonal relations to which the language of friendship is variable appropriate. Think of a business or work relationship, for example. Aristotle suggests that the simplest sorts of plot are complex plots that arouse fear and pity. People who lack empathy and the ability to care for others seldom develop these kinds of relationships because their preference tends toward pleasure or utility. Friendship is one of the necessary conditions to complete human life because a life isolated from the community cannot be considered sufficient. Aristotle on Love and Friendship 210 about feelings but looks exclusively to intention,3 an intention which, moreover, has as its object the well-being of the other. Aristotle on Friendship Friendship is a bond in which many individuals make every effort to achieve, although the meaning of it is not known to them. "Professor Stern-Gillet has taken on the task of explaining how, in Aristotelian terms, a friend can be 'another self.' Buyers receive items while sellers receive money in return. Aristotle regards less intimate bonds as friendships as well as the intimate relationship in the modern definition. Just as friendship binds together individuals, so justice binds together communities. In this discussion, I will support it through (1) friendship is necessary and noble, (2) implications of friendship … Friendship Aristotle on Forming Friendships Tim Madigan and Daria Gorlova explain Aristotle’s understanding of good friends and tell us why we need them.. Here, the impression made is that love is merely a feeling, and friendship a state of character. Human beings are not the only social animals, according to Aristotle. Moreover, each type of friendship, to be an actual friendship, has the following attributes: “To be friends therefore, men must (1) feel goodwill for each … After what we have said, a discussion of friendship would naturally follow, since it is a virtue or implies virtue, and is besides most necessary with a view to living. Happiness is the first thing examined in Nicomachean Ethics. In aristocracy the friendship is by virtue of a relationship of superiority based on merit, and in timocracy there is friendship based on equality. 4 Contemplating Friendship in Aristotle’s Ethics what Aristotle calls “contemplation,” and which comes to light as essential to the highest human life accompanied by the highest human good: hap-piness. Emotions are the threads that bind the hearts together. Firstly, friendship of utility loves for usefulness. Friendship, in this sense, involves sharing in a common project: to create and sustain the life of a community, ‘a sharing incorporated in the immediacy of an individual’s particular friendships’ (MacIntyre 1985: 156). Secondly, friendship of pleasure takes pleasure as the object of love. Aristotle … While Aristotle does discuss friendships based on usefulness or on pleasure, he does not consider these to be friendship … In efforts to explain why the truest friendship is the one that one of the good, Aristotle argues that the friendship that is without qualification pleasant or good seems to be desirable or lovable. Yet friendship in the genuine sense is not merely a superficial exchange of pleasantries; it is much deeper. It’s the most solid kind — and the rarest — but it’s still possible. These relationships require time and intention, but when they blossom, they do so with trust, admiration, and awe. Join 40,000+ readers for exclusive access. The theoretical Aristotle might imply as much, but, above all, Aristotle was a practical philosopher, and he offered this teaching to aid more than a few moral elites. Aristotle on Friendship. Friendship is thus a necessity for the good life in Aristotle's view. Aristotle points out that happiness is the ultimate end of human beings; and, it is complete and self-sufficient. Francis Bacon begins “Of Friendship” with an anthropological statement of Aristotle i.e “Whatsoever is delighted in solitude, is either a wild beast or a god.” Bacon begins the essay by invoking the classical authority of Aristotle on basic human nature. Along the way, Ludwig offers policy proposals based on his Aristotelian conception of civic friendship. In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle describes friendship as reciprocated goodwill. Log in Register Recommend to librarian Print publication year: 2019; Online publication date: May 2019; Chapter 9 - Aristotle on Friendship and Being Human. Virtuous people are also more likely to … Listers, Aristotle quite arguably has the most famous philosophic lesson on friendship. Aristotle’s final form of friendship seems to be the most preferable. Aristotle asserts that a human being is a political animal by nature. Nobody would choose to live without friends even if he had all the other good things. Aristotle on Friendship 1069 Words | 4 Pages. Happiness as a motive for friendship, the three levels of friendship, and salvaging friendships at all costs are a few philosophies that Aristotle holds. They lacked depth and a solid foundation. He thus concludes that three sorts of plot should be avoided. Aristotle affirms that “this sort of friendship is enduring, since it embraces in itself all the features that friends must have.” However, this kind is rare because few people can be found with these features. He defines “the good as what everything seeks.” Also, there are different degrees of the good, such as low, high, and highest. Aristotle also clarifies that while loving is a feeling, friendship is a state. Aristotle is widely regarded one of the most brilliant and prolific among the Western philosophers. Friendship is closely related to justice, and the demands of … For instance, a young lover may find an older companion useful, and the older companion may find the young lover pleasant. The cast of ‘Friends’: Aristotle says older people often pursue the friendship of usefulness, young people most frequently the friendship of pleasure. Among women's differences from men were that they were, in his view, more impulsive, … Consider this … He also compares this dialogue to his earlier work De Senectute ("On Old Age"). According to Aristotle, these are the strongest and most long lasting of friendships. It consists of ten books – all of them originally written as separate scrolls – and is based on Aristotle’s notes from his lectures at the Lyceum, the ancient university founded by the great philosopher in Athens in 334 BCE. Not everything he wrote is relevant today, of course, and many of his assumptions have been argued against. 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